Antiphospholipd Ab Syndrome (Lupus Anticoagulant Syndrome)

Definition Autoimmune disorder autoantibodies against phospholipid-bound proteins (beta2-glycoprotein I, prothrombin, annexin A5) First diagnosed in patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) Catastrophic Antiphospholipid Antibody Syndrome: Multi organ thrombosis resulting in neurologic...

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Blood Products Transfusion Complications

Definition Body reaction that occurs after blood or blood product transfusion due to acute and/or chronic immune response Most common types: Febrile non-hemolytic reactions Chill-rigor reactions Most life threatening types:...

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Hodgkin Lymphoma

Definition Hodgkin lymphoma Hodgkin lymphoma is a cancer of a sub-type of white blood cells called Lymphocytes. Hodgkin lymphoma starts in abnormal B cells called Hodgkin and Reed-Sternberg cells. These...

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Anemia, Causes

Differential Diagnosis

Drug induced:

  • Alcohol
  • Antineoplastics
  • Antithyroid drugs
  • Antibiotics
  • Hypoglycemic agents
  • Azidothymidine
  • Anticonvulsants (interfere with B-12, folate)
  • Antineoplastics (interfere with B-12, folate)
  • Antimalarial drugs
  • Aspirin
  • NSAIDs
  • Steroids



  1. B-12 deficiency (vegan, vegetarian, breast feed infants)
  2. Atrophic gastritis
  3. Partial gastrectomy
  4. Loss of gastric mucosa
  5. Zollinger-Ellison syndrome
  6. Blind-loop syndrome
  7. IF receptor deficiency
  8. Folate deficiency



  • B-12 deficiency
  • Malabsorption
  • Alcoholism
  • Folic acid deficiency
  • Chronic gastritis


Iron deficiency:

  • Anemia of chronic diseases
  • Sidroblastic anemia
  • Thalassemia trait
  • Lead poisoning


ANA positive:

  • SLE
  • Drugs:
    • Phenitoin
    • Ethosuximide
    • Primidone
    • Methyldopa
    • Hydralazine
    • Carbamazepine
    • Penicillin
    • Procainamide
    • Thiazides
    • Autoimmune hepatitis
    • Rheumatoid arthritis
    • Scleroderma
    • Mixed connective tissue disease
    • Necrotizing vasculitis
    • Sjogren’s syndrome





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