Differential Diagnosis Medical/Mental: Pregnancy Suckling  Self-manipulation Stimulation during sexual activity Pituitary tumors  Is the most common pathologic cause of galactorrhea Usually Prolactin level is high  Could present with amenorrhea as...

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Multiple Sclerosis (MS)

Definition Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory and neurological disease of unknown origin involving the brain and spinal cord. Myelin (the fatty substance that surrounds and insulates nerve fibres) and...

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Cystic fibrosis

Definition Cystic fibrosis is a genetic disorder that affects mainly the lungs and digestive system. Epidemiology In the united states approximately 30,000 individuals are suffering from cystic fibrosis. Data from...

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Hodgkin Lymphoma

Definition Hodgkin lymphoma Hodgkin lymphoma is a cancer of a sub-type of white blood cells called Lymphocytes. Hodgkin lymphoma starts in abnormal B cells called Hodgkin and Reed-Sternberg cells. These...

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Eating Disorders

What is eating disorders?

The eating disorders are classified to three main groups of anorexia nervosa, bulimia and binge-eating disorders. These conditions are serious disturbances in eating behavior and body image. Individuals with eating disorders are often concerned about weight, body shape and body image.

Neurogenic Bowel


With a spinal cord injury (SCI), damage can occur to the nerves that allow a person to control bowel movements.

There are two typical patterns of neurogenic bowel: “upper motor neuron” and “lower motor neuron.” Some people with SCI also have a mixed picture, with features of both.

A SCI may result in a loss of ability to feel when the rectum is full. Bowel movements occur reflexively when the rectum is full. This type of bowel problem is called an upper motor neuron or “reflexic bowel.” It can be managed by causing the defecation reflex to occur at a socially appropriate time and place.

A spinal cord injury level may damage the defecation reflex and relax the anal sphincter muscle. This is known as a lower motor neuron, “flaccid” or “areflexic” bowel. Management of this type of bowel problem may require more frequent attempts to empty the bowel and bearing down or manual removal of stool.

Both types of neurogenic bowel can be managed successfully to prevent unplanned bowel movements and other bowel problems such as constipation, diarrhea and impaction.



A spastic neurogenic bowel is caused when messages between the brain and the colon are interrupted (stopped) when a SCI is at the neck (cervical) or chest (thoracic) level.

A flaccid, or “limp” neurogenic bowel is caused by a spinal cord injury at the lumbar (lower back) or sacral (tail bone) area of the spinal cord. The nerves that go out from this area to the bowel also may have been damaged, decreasing the reflex (automatic) control of the anal sphincter.


The primary symptom of neurogenic bowel disease is a loss of bowel control, causing incontinence or constipation.

Physical exam

Diagnosis of a neurogenic bowel will include a full physical examination, including rectal examination in order to devise a bowel regimen. A neurologic examination can reveal the extent of the nerve damage and the completeness of the SCI.

When devising a bowel regimen, a patient’s upper and lower extremity strength, sitting balance, and ability to transfer, weight, and extremity length are taken into consideration




Complications of neurogenic bowel may include hemorrhoids, pain, diarrhea, impaction, or appetite loss.


Dfinition Schizophrenia is a chronic and severe mental disorder that affects how a person thinks, feels, and behaves. People with schizophrenia may seem like they have lost touch with reality....

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Synthetic Cannabinoids, Spice, or K2.


  • Synthetic cannabinoids are new recreational drugs and have found their popularity among users. These compounds have a variety of structure and all mimic the effects of THC.
  • Common names: K2; Spice; …

Adverse effects

  • Rhabdomyolysis
  • Renal failure
  • Prolonged QTc
  • Vomiting
  • Seizures
  • Agression
  • Agitation
  • Catatonia
  • Psychosis
  • Death


The most frequently reported signs and symptoms reported during intoxication are:

  • High blood pressure
  • Rapid heart rate
  • Aggressive behavior
  • Confusion
  • Agitation
  • Sleepiness


Synthetic cannabinoids:

  • are not safe
  • are not legal
  • are not the same as marijuana
  • could cause devastating and fatal harms

Opioid abuse

Dfinition Opioids are a group of substances that work on opioid receptors of nervous system. Opioids can be classified to three groups of: Natural: Opium Synthetic: Oxycodone Hydrocodone Methadone Fentanyl...

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